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Hinton diagrams are a way of visualizing numerical values in a matrix/vector, popular in the neural networks and machine learning literature. The area occupied by a square is proportional to a value's magnitude, and the colour (black or white in this case) indicates it's sign (positive/negative). | Hinton diagrams are a way of visualizing numerical values in a matrix/vector, popular in the neural networks and machine learning literature. The area occupied by a square is proportional to a value's magnitude, and the colour (black or white in this case) indicates its sign (positive/negative). |

# Hinton diagrams with matplotlib

Hinton diagrams are a way of visualizing numerical values in a matrix/vector, popular in the neural networks and machine learning literature. The area occupied by a square is proportional to a value's magnitude, and the colour (black or white in this case) indicates its sign (positive/negative).

```
1 import numpy as N
2 import pylab as P
3
4 def _blob(x,y,area,colour):
5 """
6 Draws a square-shaped blob with the given area (< 1) at
7 the given coordinates.
8 """
9 hs = N.sqrt(area) / 2
10 xcorners = N.array([x - hs, x + hs, x + hs, x - hs])
11 ycorners = N.array([y - hs, y - hs, y + hs, y + hs])
12 P.fill(xcorners, ycorners, colour, edgecolor=colour)
13
14 def hinton(W, maxWeight=None):
15 """
16 Draws a Hinton diagram for visualizing a weight matrix.
17 Temporarily disables matplotlib interactive mode if it is on,
18 otherwise this takes forever.
19 """
20 reenable = False
21 if P.isinteractive():
22 P.ioff()
23 P.clf()
24 height, width = W.shape
25 if not maxWeight:
26 maxWeight = 2**N.ceil(N.log(N.max(N.abs(W)))/N.log(2))
27
28 P.fill(N.array([0,width,width,0]),N.array([0,0,height,height]),'gray')
29 P.axis('off')
30 P.axis('equal')
31 for x in xrange(width):
32 for y in xrange(height):
33 _x = x+1
34 _y = y+1
35 w = W[y,x]
36 if w > 0:
37 _blob(_x - 0.5, height - _y + 0.5, min(1,w/maxWeight),'white')
38 elif w < 0:
39 _blob(_x - 0.5, height - _y + 0.5, min(1,-w/maxWeight),'black')
40 if reenable:
41 P.ion()
42 P.show()
```